Summarized history of Minoan Crete

Summarized history of Minoan Crete


The Minoans were a powerful trading empire that were located on the island of Crete. The Minoans started their trading empire by selling gold, ivory, tin, etc. to the Near East in c. 1900 BC. Then they expanded their trading routes by setting up some of their first trading colonies in the Aegean Sea. This is about the time when the Minoans made up their own language called Linear A. The language has not been deciphered, but the Ancient Greeks, Mycenaeans, used their own version of Linear A called Linear B. Historians deciphered Linear B in the 1950’s. Linear B uses some of the symbols of Linear A, so we have some idea of what Linear A conveys, just not their whole language.

The Minoans faced a time where all of their palaces were destroyed by an unknown force in c. 1600 BC. It could have been a natural disaster or some other empire trying to take over Minoan Crete, but the Minoans got back up on their feet and started to rebuild their empire. They rebuilt their palaces bigger and grander than the palaces before. They expanded their trade much farther than before, and their trading route ended up going as far a modern-day Israel. The Mycenaeans took over Minoan Crete in c. 1425 BC, and that was the last of the Minoan empire.

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The Ninety-Five Theses

On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther created 95 Theses that described why the Church should abolish Indulgences. Luther carried this belief because he thought that the concept of Indulgence was harmful to Christians. Indulgences are a way for the Church to release someone from their temporal punishment for committing a sin. Before one could apply for an Indulgence, one had to confess their sins to a priest so they could avoid eternal punishment. Once the confession was over, one would receive a temporal punishment that had to be completed before that person died. One of the ways a person could avoid the temporal punishment was to get an Indulgence. Luther believed that Indulgences were only ruining Christians because it was preventing them from being truly sorry for their sinful nature.

In the 95 Theses, Luther stated that because one could pay the Church to avoid temporal punishment it was encouraging Christians to not fear punishment for their sins. Luther believed that the Bible taught that the only way to reach Heaven was to spiritually feel remorseful about their sins. The only reason why Christians obey God’s laws is that they fear punishment from God for breaking those laws. By obeying God’s laws out of fear, people began to understand that living a life without sin was better than a sinful life. The consequences of Indulgences were that Christians were becoming too soft towards sin because their mindset was that as long as people Confessed and obtain Indulgences, then God would forgive them no matter how many times they sinned. At this point, Christians were no longer Confessing their sins because they felt truly remorseful; they were Confessing their sins so they could get the benefits of going to heaven. It is for these reasons why Luther wanted to abolish Indulgences in his 95 Theses.

The condition of the Catholic Church on the eve of the Protestant Reformation

The condition of the Catholic Church on the eve of the Protestant Reformation was a time of corruption, ignorance and righteousness. There were numerous ignorant/corrupt individuals that plagued the Church, but it was often not their fault. For example, Churchmen were often so impoverished that they were more concerned about obtaining money than their job. There were no seminaries for Priests to study Christian teachings. This often led to numerous Priests being too ignorant to answer the simplest questions about Christian teachings. Corrupt Archbishops would often have multiple cities to manage so they could obtain larger incomes for each city they promised to care for. However, they would only stay in one city while leaving the other cities without an Archbishop. As a result of the corruption and ignorance of the Church, people became distant from the Church’s organizations and preferred to satisfy their spiritual needs within themselves.

While there were corruption and ignorance, there were also Popes, Archbishops, Abbots, Priests, etc. that were truly pious and righteous. Some of these pious men even tried to reform the Church before the time of Martin Luther. One of the major reformers before Martin Luther was an Archbishop, Cardinal Ximenes. Ximenes built hospitals and seminaries, reformed monastic/religious orders, helped the parish clergy and much more. It is because of Churchmen like Ximenes that I cannot conclude that the Catholic Church was completely corrupt, but I can see that there was enough corruption for Martin Luther to take matters into his own hands and initiate the Protestant Reformation.

How the 3 areas of business apply to a business in my city

In Nashville, TN, we are one of the fastest growing cities in America and this means we have many businesses in our area. One such business is a chain of restaurants called Moe’s Southwest Grill. It is a Corporation that consists of numerous chains of restaurants that specializes in making burritos, tacos and other southwestern food. It would be classified as a Retailer and a Distributor of its own products.

Moe’s Southwest Grill is known for their ability to make delicious southwestern food using the freshest of ingredients 100% of the time. They have a huge Finance and Administration sector since they have over 600 locations. Their Finance and Administration has to be huge if they want to be able to pay for employees, fresh ingredients, buildings, advertising, planning, taxes, etc. One of their biggest competitors is Chipotle Mexican Grill, which also specializes in southwestern food. To make sure Moe’s Southwest Grill stays ahead of their competitors, they have to not only have good food but also be known to the public. This means they need to have a big marketing division to advertise themselves above their competitors. These are the 3 areas of business that apply to Moe’s Southwest Grill.

How I can control small expenses

I can control my small expenses in numerous manners. I could make a plan to only spend my money on goods that I need and to not spend my money on wants. I could only allow myself to spend a certain amount of money on small expenses so I do not waste all of my money. I could consult my parents about the best way possible to cut back on small expenses. I could always be searching for a way to get the small expense item cheaper by looking at different brands, stores and discounts. I could keep track of my money and determine if I have enough money to spend on small expense wants and if not, then I would keep saving until I feel that I can spare some money for the small expense item. The reason I would be doing all of this would be to save enough money to pay for bigger expenses like a car, house, tools, family, etc. It is also healthy to not consistently indulge myself because it will lead to bad spending habits in the future for me and maybe my posterity when they see that I cannot handle my own money.


Five student benefits of the Ron Paul Curriculum

  1. The lessons are taught by people that are experts in the field that they are teaching, so students receive the best education.
  2. The lessons are usually around 20-25 minutes long, so this forces the teachers to only teach students the most valuable pieces of information about a particular subject.
  3. The lessons provide visual and audio learning in case a student is more inclined towards either form of learning.
  4. At the end of every non-math lesson, there are links to websites that go more in-depth on the subject matter in case students want to learn more about the subject or the student did not understand some parts of the lesson.
  5. The Curriculum allows me to have the freedom to complete any assignment whenever I want to do it.

If anyone is interested in learning more about the curriculum, here is a link to 26 reasons why a parent should sign their child up.

Problems of the Church during the 10th through 11th century

Problems of the Church during the 10th through 11th century


In the 10th-11th century, the Christian Churches were being suppressed by Kings, Aristocratic families and Emperors because of the influence that the Church possessed in Europe. Christianity was the dominate religion during this period and anyone that held a position in the Church had considerable influence over the realm. The secular rulers wanted the powers of the Church, and they obtained those powers by controlling some of the Churches abilities. One of the abilities that the secular rulers took was the Church’s ability to control who was appointed to a position in the Church.

Secular rulers were appointing people to the positions of Bishop, Abbot and Priest because they wanted the Churches influence. The original Christian tradition was that the Pope would appoint people to these positions, not secular rulers. However, the Aristocratic families were ruining the papacy by appointing their sons to be the Pope, which was against Christian tradition. If one had the papacy, that person would have had extraordinary influence in Europe, as Bishops, Abbots and Priests would have to obey the will of the Pope. Unfortunately for the secular rulers, one of the Popes that they elected started to exercise some of papacy’s long forgotten powers, which led to “moderate reform” in the Church.

Bruno of Egisheim-Dagsburg became Pope in 1048 AD and took the name Leo IX. He realized that the Pope had powers that were no longer in use because of the papacy’s abuse. Leo was determined to restore some of the forgotten powers, so he wrote a book called “74 Tiles” which explained the authority of the Pope. He also wanted the Kings and Emperors to choose better candidates for positions in the Church because the people that were chosen were not adequate. While Leo was improving the Church, his improvements are considered to be “moderate reform” because he was not attempting to obtain all the authority of the Pope. He was also letting the secular rulers appoint people to positions in the Church, which is the right of the Pope. Even though Leo did not bring the Church out of the grasps of the rulers, he did initiate the “radical reforms” that would come from Pope Gregory VII.

Pope Gregory VII, who ruled from 1073-1085 AD, took immediate action against the secular rulers once he obtained the papacy. He held multiple councils to announce that the Church would be in control of itself and no one else could interfere in Church matters. King Henry IV, King of the Germans, would not listen to Gregory’s decrees, so Gregory excommunicated Henry. Henry eventually convinced Gregory to lift the excommunication, but Henry was still furious at Gregory, so he exiled him from Rome. Gregory died in exile, but his decrees managed to get the Church from the grasps of the secular rulers. The Church could finally regain its strength without interference and become a powerful force in Europe.

The Church was in a dilemma during the 10th-11th century because of the abuse it was receiving from people that wanted to obtain the Church’s power. When Pope Leo IX took office, he started to reform the Church in a better direction. Even though Leo did not accomplish much, he inspired other Popes to take charge and rise up against its oppressors. The problems that the Church experienced were eventually fixed through the “radical reforms” by Pope Gregory VII. The Church would eventually regain all of its influences in Europe thanks to the reforms of Pope Leo IX and Gregory VII.

The rivalry between the Sadducees and Apostles

The rivalry between the Sadducees and Apostles


The Sadducees and the Apostles were groups of people from different religions that had rivaling opinions about religious matters. The Sadducees were Jewish and were in charge of the political and religious roles in Israel, as well as, caring for the Temple in Jerusalem. The Apostles were Christians and followers of Jesus. Their job was to travel to multiple regions to preach the word of Jesus and God and to perform miracles like healing and exorcisms. While there are numerous differences between Judaism and Christianity, the main difference between the groups was about Jesus. Both of the groups believed in God, but the Sadducees believed that Jesus was not the Son of God, while the Apostles believed that Jesus was the Son of God. This was one of many different opinions between the groups, but this was the main reason why the Sadducees and Apostles were unable to find a way to reconcile their rivaling opinions.

The Apostles would travel the land preaching the word of Jesus’ new doctrine, Christianity, while performing miracles. Jesus believed that everyone deserved a chance to find God’s kingdom, while the Jews believed that they were the only ones deserving to see Gods’ kingdom. The Sadducees would not eat certain animals that God, in the Old Testament, had declared to be unclean, but the Apostles ate those animals that were deemed unclean. The Sadducees would rest on the Sabbath Day, a day created by God where no work was to be done, while the Apostles would work on that day. These are only a few of the numerous differences between the Sadducees and Apostles, but the Sadducees decided that these differences were cause enough to stop the Apostles from spreading the word of Jesus.

Unfortunately for the Sadducees, the Apostles were successful in converting many people of different religions to their faith. The Sadducees would arrest the Apostles to stop them from preaching Jesus’ doctrine. This did not stop the Apostles from preaching, so the Sadducees had to resort to drastic measures. One of the Apostles, Stephen, was preaching the word of Jesus, until he was arrested by the Sadducees and stoned to death. This was one of many murders that were committed by the Sadducees. To justify their killings, they would charge the Apostles with blasphemy against God. They were desperate to stop the Apostles and would do anything to accomplish this goal.

At this point, some people may find that the Sadducees were more worried about losing their influence/power over people than actually protecting their religion from blasphemy. If this was the case, it would not be surprising because the Sadducees were some of the most powerful people in Israel. They even had the power to influence Jews that were outside the boarders of Israel. If they lost their religious influence over people, they would lose the power that came with that influence.

There are multiple reasons why the Apostles and Sadducees would not agree with each other. They each believed in different religions that had different ideals. History has shown that people of different religions tend to not prefer each other. The Sadducees did not improve their relationship with the Apostles by killing them or keeping them in jail. Ultimately, it was religious disagreement that prevented the Sadducees and Apostles from reconciling their rival opinions.

Philip II Augustus’ significance in French history

Philip II Augustus’ significance in French history


Philip II Augustus was a Capetian French King (r. 1180-1223 AD) who is known for centralizing the King’s power after it had been stripped away by the Nobles and Lords during the 9th-11th century Viking invasions. Philip had a goal to increase the King’s influence in France and expand his Kingdom, as France was a small blimp in comparison to the German and English Kingdoms. The Lords and Nobles used the 9th -11th century invasions to secure the King’s power. This led to the systems of Feudalism and Manorialism; where the Lords and Nobles protected the people from invasions and the people would care for the Lord’s and Noble’s land as payment. This decentralized the King’s authority because the people no longer trusted the Kings to protect them from the invasions.

After many years, Philip had increased his political authority to the point that even the most influential Nobles and Lords in France had to obey Philip. After he secured his power, his next goal was to force the Angevin Empire out of French territory. The Angevin Empire was controlled by the Kings of England and controlled about half of France. Philip managed to conquer some territory from the Angevin Empire, but it was not until the Battle of Bouvines that Philip had a decisive victory against King John of England. The battle weakened England to the point that they had to sign the Magna Carta; a peace treaty between France and England that limited John’s power.

Philip II Augustus was a renowned King who turned France from a backwater country to the dominant force in Europe in the span of forty years. He centralized the King’s authority in France and managed to defeat King John of England in the battle of Bouvines; forcing him to sign the Magna Carta. Philip now had complete control of France and used his time to improve his kingdom. Philip had paved the way for France to continue its dominant position in Europe for centuries to come.




Indulgence is an action that is performed by Christians who want God to relieve them from the temporal punishment of sin. When one sins willingly and knowingly, that person has to face two punishments for that sin: temporal and eternal. Eternal punishment is when someone is sent to the fiery depths of hell when they die. Temporal punishment is the punishment that one must face on earth. Temporal punishment usually involves physical or mentally harming oneself to earn God’s grace. After a person performs the Sacrament of Penance to rid of the eternal punishment, that person has a few options to rid of the temporal punishment. One of those options is performing Indulgences.

The Indulgence that one must do depends on the sins that one had committed. If the sins are minor, then the Indulgence might be that one has to say a certain prayer fifty times in a row for fifty days. If the sins are serious, then the Indulgence might involve doing something physically demanding, such as making a journey somewhere distant or building houses for the blind. If one does not complete the Indulgences on earth, then that person will end up in purgatory. Purgatory is a place where people with unfinished Indulgences end up until they complete the Indulgence. Once a person has completed their Indulgence, that person is allowed into heaven.

Indulgence is a Christian tradition that still goes on today that allows Christians to free themselves from the guilt of sin. It is a respectable tradition that makes up for the wrongs that Christians have committed throughout their lives.

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